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Z.Kvitsiani:Communication System of Ancient Caucasus (Mains and Swells)

Caucasian people’s trade, economical and cultural relationships cannot be represented without appropriate roads. On an early stage of development, in a pre-class age existing roads, after cargo handicraft springing and development had become roads of a trade kind gradually. There were outlined numerous contours of Caucasian basic trade roads in VI-V centuries B. C.

Basic trade roads of the ancient Caucasus as it is mentioned in reference books laid along the same places where modern main roads are located. Of course, Iveria and Kolkheti roads strengthen trade, economical and cultural relationships between Southern centers and Northern Caucasian tribes.

Mtskheta was one of the most important intersections of ancient trade roads. Caucasus is a mountain region and roads often were laid through so called doors and gates.

Road communications existence constituted one of the most significant conditions of Caucasian social, economical, cultural and historical development. Caucasian paths alongside with trade, economical and cultural relationships were of foreign political strategic importance both for the whole Georgia and far foreign countries. These subjects are recorded in old written sources and monuments of material culture.

Upon comparing of existing archeological monuments, cartographic materials, written and oral information it is evident that main roads coincide with old directions.

Caucasian Mtialeti viable arteries reached ‘Kauasioni’ which was a golden bridge through which Georgia was related to Northern Caucasus and the whole Europe an on the contrary all roads directed from the other side of the mountain reached Georgia.

Romans were also related with Svaneti with economical relationship; in particular, they were interested in gold, silver, marble and other precious materials reconnaissance. Two thousand years ago Romans built granite and marble quarries in Enguri canyon. Marble was placed on wooden carts and delivered to Fazis and Sevastopol construction. Recent researches testify fact of Svaneti gold deposits existence not far from Enguri and Tskhenistkali. It is detected that in the ancient age there were molded Alexander Macedonian and Lisimake golden statues from Svaneti gold. It is also detected that places of golden coins finding exactly coincide with roads, passages and intersections. Romans were interested in Caucasian road communications as soon as they first arrived in the region.

Roads laid in Caucasus contributed to near East and ancient cultural monuments penetration and dissemination in the region towns and even among mountainous communities. From this point of view it is noteworthy that archeological materials were found out either in Southern or in Northern Caucasian territories in Rioni river orifice, Tergi canyon Ksani median flow, in Ertso, Enguri and Tskhenistkali canyons, Baxan canyon, etc.

These roads also transported ancient ceramics and Roman jewelry as well as Torevtika monuments and Achemenide art samples and Egyptian, Syrian and Phoenician glass articles; Greek, Roan and Parthian coins, Greek and Aramaic written monuments.

Category: Abstracts | Added by: margalita (18.10.2009)
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